The new military doctrine of Kazakhstan says that the country considers cyberattacks, propaganda, covert training of “destructive elements” in the country, as well as limiting the country's “capabilities” in the space sphere as potential threats
Kazakhstan developed a draft of a new military doctrine, document published for discussion on the portal of legal acts “Open legal acts”.
The military doctrine is “a system of views officially adopted in the state on ensuring the military security and defense of the republic”, and also determines the direction of the country's development in terms of ensuring its security, the document explains.
In the section, which concerns the analysis of the current situation in the world, it is said that now the situation in the world “is characterized by high dynamism and unpredictability of development, the growth of confrontation between world and regional powers for spheres of influence in the world, as well as the growing role of military force in resolving interstate and intrastate contradictions” .
Among the main threats to the security of Kazakhstan are:
- increasing tension between world and regional powers;
- reducing the effectiveness of international law and the ability of international organizations to ensure security;
- an increase in the volume of weapons of mass destruction in the world, as well as the creation of weapons of mass impact based on new physical principles;
- globalization of terrorism and extremism, expansion of the geography of their activities and areas of activity;
- carrying out information and propaganda activities, including information operations (cyber attacks) aimed at destabilizing the situation in the state;
- intensification of the struggle for superiority in outer space, as well as attempts to limit the capabilities of Kazakhstan in the outer space, attempts to reduce the military potential of the state “through influence from outer space”;
- hidden preparation of destructive elements on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and neighboring states .
< li>violation of agreements related to the limitation and reduction of strategic offensive weapons;
Kazakhstan plans to focus on maintaining the combat readiness of the army, maintaining the mobilization readiness of the state, accumulating stocks of the state material reserve and organizing its storage, improving and monitoring a single telecommunications network.
Kazakhstan also intends to expand its participation in ensuring international security. The military doctrine of the country is defensive in nature, the text of the document says.
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In early January, protests broke out in Kazakhstan, the initial cause of which was a sharp increase in the price of liquefied gas for the population. The authorities agreed to reduce them, the government resigned, but these measures did not give the desired result.
The protests that began in the west of the country quickly swept the entire republic, economic slogans were replaced by political ones, in the largest city of the country and the former capital— Alma-Ata— anti-government actions escalated into riots, and the city was given over to looters for several days.
To suppress the unrest, the authorities resorted to the help of the army. As a result of subsequent clashes, according to official figures, 225 people were killed, including 19 representatives of law enforcement agencies. President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev on January 10 called the incident in the country a terrorist attack and a well-organized aggression with the help of militants from abroad. At his request, the CSTO brought peacekeepers into the country, who stayed there until the situation returned to normal.
At the same time, right during the protests, serious internal political changes took place in the country. On January 5, in the midst of the unrest, Tokayev announced that he himself would head the republic's Security Council, which had been chaired by the republic's first president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, for more than 30 years. He remained in this position even after he left the post of head of state in 2019,— the status of the lifelong chairman of the Security Council was assigned to the elbasy (the leader of the nation, the official title of Nazarbayev) by two special laws.
From the moment when Tokayev took this position from Nazarbayev, a rapid transition of power began in the country. Amendments abolishing the lifelong status of the first president were approved by both houses of parliament by January 27. After the protests, Tokayev announced that the country would undergo large-scale reforms. He promised that the country would move away from the super-presidential form of government, and the role of the parliament would be strengthened.
In early June, a referendum on amendments to the Constitution was held in Kazakhstan. One of the key amendments — exclusion from the Constitution of the article dedicated to Nazarbayev, according to which he will lose most of his personal privileges and the status of Elbasy (leader of the nation). Also, the amendments also provide that one president of Kazakhstan cannot be elected to office more than twice in a row, while he must leave the party for the period of office. In addition, his close relatives will be banned from holding positions of civil servants. Nazarbayev himself supported the exclusion of his mention from the Constitution.
Amendments to the Constitution of Kazakhstan were supported by 77.18% of voters, the Republican CEC reported.